Definition of the Areas of the OPENCities Monitor:


Refers to the presence of an international populations in the city as well as the public attitude towards ethnic diversity.


Assesses the current state of political rights and civil liberties (e.g. no corruption, no censorship, no racism, encouragement of foreign investment etc.)

Barriers of entry:

Measures ease of entry, integration and the legal environment for migrants and foreign investors in the host country as well as government policy towards immigration.

International events:

Measures the number & type of international events (fairs and conferences) in the city.

International presence:

Assesses the current level of internationalisation (international companies, foreign direct investment, embassies, international organisations) and the city's level of integration within the world city network.


Refers to the choice of good quality education opportunities in the city, the level of attraction for a highly qualified international population.

International flows:

Refers to short-term visitors from abroad (tourists and international passengers).


Refers to both the accessibility and connectivity of the city with other parts of the world.

Quality of life:

Assesses medical services, crime rates and employment possibilities. The quality of life of the international population in the city also depends on public attitudes towards people from another cultural/religious background.

Standard of living:

Refers to the economic well-being of the population in the city. It is measured by GDP per capita, GDP growth, cost of living, housing and tax rates.

Diversity actions:

Measures the portfolio of proactive programmes of city governments to increase the attractiveness and openness of the city for international populations. For example: by providing information and support in different languages to international populations, by establishing a migration specific department with staff with an intercultural competence, to provide start-coaching programmes, interpreter services etc…

The OPENCities Monitor is conducted by BAK. BAK Economics AG (BAK) is an independent Swiss research institute.